Hypoapnea apnea syndrome
Sleep pathology in adults
A condition in which breathing stops or becomes shallow during sleep due to airway obstruction, which can lead to decreased oxygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dioxide levels.
It can affect overweight or obese people, as well as thin people. Symptoms include loud snoring, pauses in breathing during sleep, daytime sleepiness and morning headaches.
The lack of oxygen in the body during episodes of apnea can have consequences on the circulation, brain and heart, so it is essential to seek treatment.
- Loud, choppy snoring
- Oxyhemoglobin saturation drop
- Heart rhythm disturbances
- Pulmonary hypertension
- Daytime sleepiness
- Restless sleep
- Multiple awakenings and feelings of tiredness or unrefreshing sleep
- Neuropsychological alterations: decreased concentration, memory and libido.
- Morning headaches
Intense snoring and daytime sleepiness should not be taken lightly, as they may be indicators of this disease. It is recommended to seek medical attention if these symptoms occur frequently.
The diagnosis of sleep apnea is based on the patient’s clinical manifestations and confirmation is made by Polysomnography. To do this, the patient must go to a Sleep Disorders Unit where his or her behavior during the night is observed, type of breathing, snoring intensity, number of respiratory stops (apnea/hypopnea index), heart rhythm disturbances, sleep depth, number of awakenings and degree of hypoxia. Only in this way is it possible to determine the degree of importance of the disease and to highlight all the alterations of the organism that take place during sleep and wakefulness.
The nocturnal respiratory disturbance index is the predictor of the severity of the process, and can determine whether specific treatment such as the use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine, surgery or lifestyle changes are necessary.
Factors that can increase the number and intensity of clinical symptoms, so it is important to consider them in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
- Presence of obstructions in the upper respiratory tract
- Excess weight
- Craniofacial or skeletal disorders
- Neurological and muscular alterations
- Metabolic disturbances The presence of these circumstances
Sleep apnea can be a serious condition that requires medical and social care, and it is important to treat it to prevent complications such as diastolic hypertension and unexplained nocturnal deaths. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, such as losing weight and avoiding alcohol and tobacco use, as well as the use of positive airway pressure devices during sleep.